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Accepted Scientific Name: Echinopsis pentlandii (Hook.) Salm-Dyck ex A.Dietr.
Allg. Gartenzeitung (Otto & Dietrich) 14: 250. 1846 Otto & A.Dietr.
Origin and Habitat: Challapata to Potosí, Potosí, Bolivia
Altitude: Around 3950 metres above sea level.
Echinopsis pentlandii (Hook.) Salm-Dyck ex A.Dietr.
Allg. Gartenzeitung (Otto & Dietrich) 14: 250. 1846
- Echinopsis pentlandii (Hook.) Salm-Dyck ex A.Dietr.
- Echinocactus pentlandii (Hook.)
- Echinocereus pentlandii (Hook.) K.Schum. in Engl. & Prantl
- Lobivia pentlandii (Hook.) Britton & Rose
- Echinopsis pentlandii subs. hardeniana (Boed.) G.Navarro
- Lobivia hardeniana Boed. ex Backeb. & F.M.Knuth
- Lobivia pentlandii var. hardeniana (Boed.) Rausch
- Lobivia pentlandii f. hardeniana (Boed.) J.Ullmann
- Lobivia rossii var. hardeniana (Boed.) Backeb.
- Echinopsis pentlandii subs. larae (Cárdenas) G.Navarro
- Lobivia backebergii var. larae (Cárdenas) Rausch
- Lobivia larae Cárdenas
- Lobivia pentlandii var. larae (Cárdenas) Rausch
- Echinopsis scheeri Salm-Dyck
- Lobivia scheeri (Salm-Dyck) Rausch
- Lobivia maximiliana var. lauramarca (Rauh & Backeb.) J.Ullmann
- Lobivia lauramarca Rauh & Backeb. in Backeb.
- Lobivia multicostata Backeb.
- Lobivia multicostata Backeb.
- Lobivia pentlandii f. aculeata (Buining) J.Ullmann
- Lobivia aculeata Buining
- Lobivia pentlandii f. argentea (Backeb.) J.Ullmann
- Lobivia argentea Backeb.
- Lobivia pentlandii f. aurantiaca (Backeb.) J.Ullmann
- Lobivia pentlandii f. boliviensis (Britton & Rose) J.Ullmann
- Lobivia boliviensis Britton & Rose
- Lobivia pentlandii f. brunneo-rosea (Backeb.) J.Ullmann
- Lobivia brunneo-rosea Backeb.
- Lobivia pentlandii f. higginsiana (Backeb.) J.Ullmann
- Lobivia higginsiana Backeb.
- Lobivia pentlandii f. johnsoniana (Backeb.) J.Ullmann
- Lobivia johnsoniana Backeb.
- Lobivia pentlandii f. leucorhodon (Backeb.) J.Ullmann
- Lobivia leucorhodon Backeb.
- Lobivia pentlandii f. leucoviolacea (Backeb.) J.Ullmann
- Lobivia leucoviolacea Backeb. in Backeb. & F.M.Knuth
- Lobivia pentlandii f. omasuyana (Cárdenas) J.Ullmann
- Lobivia omasuyana Cárdenas
- Lobivia pentlandii f. raphidacantha (Backeb.) J.Ullmann
- Lobivia raphidacantha Backeb. in Backeb. & F.M.Knuth
- Lobivia pentlandii f. schneideriana (Backeb.) J.Ullmann
- Lobivia schneideriana Backeb.
- Lobivia pentlandii f. titicacensis (Cárdenas) J.Ullmann
- Lobivia titicacensis Cárdenas
- Lobivia pentlandii f. varians (Backeb.) J.Ullmann
- Lobivia varians Backeb. in Backeb. & F.M.Knuth
- Lobivia pentlandii f. wegheiana (Backeb.) J.Ullmann
- Lobivia wegheiana Backeb.
Echinopsis pentlandii f. cristata hort.
Echinopsis pentlandii var. longispina Rümpler in C.F.Först.
Handb. Cacteenk. (ed. 2 - Rümpler) ed. 2: 612. 1886
- Echinopsis pentlandii var. longispina Rümpler in C.F.Först.
- Lobivia pentlandii var. longispina (Rümpler) Backeb. in Backeb. & F.M.Knuth
Echinopsis pentlandii f. variegata hort.
Description: Echinopsis pentlandii f. varians, better known as Lobivia varians, is one of the many geographical or morphological form of Echinopsis pentlandii. Many variant of Echinopsis pentlandii was early classified as different independent species, but nowadays all this plants are considered part of a multiform species, where each form is linked to others by populations of plants with intermediate characteristics. Echinopsis pentlandii f. varians has distinctive orange flowers with a paler throat and extremely long spines (up to 25 cm long!)
Habit: Simple at first it slowly ramifies from the base to form clusters.
Roots: Tap root.
Stem: Low thick flat, or spherical, but usually broader than high, somewhat umbilicate at apex, bright green, dark green, up to 4 cm tall and 12 cm in diameter.
Ribs:9–12, sharp edged, broken into long acute, hatchet-shaped, tubercles, separated by acute intervals.
Areoles: Felted about 1,5 cm apart.
Spines: Variable, stout, all radial or sometime with one central, often difficult to distinguish as centrals and radials, brownish. In young specimens usually 3-7 cm long, but becoming longer and longer as the plants mature and occasionally up to 25 cm (or more) long.
Flowers: Diurnal, funnel shaped, orange, with a usual clearer centre, 6 cm long, 5 cm diameter. Tube relatively stout up to 1 cm in diameter. Inner perianth-segments, narrowly obovate, abruptly acute, spreading. Stamens and style much shorter than the inner perianth-segments. Style below green, above yellow. Scales on ovary and flower-tube lanceolate with short hairs in their axils.
Blooming season: Blooms are produced in spring and remain open for about three days.
Fruit: Subglobose, 10 to 12 mm in diameter.
Subspecies, varieties, forms and cultivars of plants belonging to the Echinopsis pentlandii group
- Echinopsis pentlandii (Hook.) Salm-Dyck ex A.Dietr.: Small quite variable species with long spins (up to 20 cm long in some clones). The flowers are of almost any colour: red, pink, yellow or bi coloured and have a very nice contrasting throat circle.
- Echinopsis pentlandii f. cristata hort.: Crested form, many clones available. Garden origin.
- Echinopsis pentlandii subs. hardeniana (Boed.) G.Navarro: (Lobivia hardeniana) Older specimens produce very long spines (up to 20 cm long !!!) but younger specimens have short spines for years. Flowers multicoloured.
- Echinopsis pentlandii subs. larae (Cárdenas) G.Navarro: has dark purple, to pink lilac flowers with a paler throat. The stems are hemispherical and quite flattened with comb shaped radial spines. Distribution: Tarata to Rio Caine, Cochabamba.
- Echinopsis pentlandii f. variegata hort.: Colourful plants with green and yellow variegated parts.
- Echinopsis pentlandii cv. Yellow (forma albinica) hort.: Chlorophyll-less Mutant with bright yellow stems. Garden origin.
- Echinopsis scheeri Salm-Dyck: has dark greyish-green or tan body with a long carrot like root, thin brownish or greyish spines, and long pale orange-red flowers. Distribution: Arequipa, Peru.
- Lobivia pentlandii f. aculeata (Buining) J.Ullmann: Plants covered by long stiff spines with bright purple-red flowers. Distribution: Tinquipaya, Potosi.
- Lobivia pentlandii f. varians (Backeb.) J.Ullmann: (Lobivia varians) This form has orange flowers with a paler throat and extremely long spines (up to 25 cm long!). Distribution: Challapata to Potosí, Potosí.
Bibliography: Major references and further lectures
1) Nathaniel Lord Britton, Joseph Nelson Rose “Cactaceae: Descriptions and Illustrations of Plants of the Cactus Family” Courier Dover Publications, 1963
2) James Cullen, Sabina G. Knees, H. Suzanne Cubey “The European Garden Flora Flowering Plants: A Manual for the Identification of Plants Cultivated in Europe, Both Out-of-Doors and Under Glass” Cambridge University Press, 11/Aug./2011
3) David Hunt, Nigel Taylor “The New Cactus Lexicon” DH Books, 2006 ISBN 0953813444, 9780953813445.
4) Edward F. Anderson “The Cactus Family” Timber Press, 2001
5) Clive Innes, Charles Glass “Cacti” Portland House, 01/May/1991
Lobivia pentlandii f. varians Photo by: Valentino Vallicelli
Lobivia pentlandii f. varians Photo by: Valentino Vallicelli
Cultivation and Propagation: This is a a much decorative frost hardy cactus easily found in cultivation. It is a summer grower species that offers no cultivation difficulties.
Soil: Use a very a particularly draining substratum, as it is very sensitive to rottenness when in presence of humidity and low temperatures and let the soil dry out between waterings, since it's natural habitat is in volcanic soil, it has adapted to more acidic conditions.
Repotting: Repot in the spring, when their roots become cramped. Generally, they should be repotted every other year in order to provide fresh soil. After repotting, do not water for a week or more. Needs a large pot to accommodate a large root system.
Water: In summer, during the vegetative period, it must be regularly watered, but allowing the substratum to completely dry up before irrigating again (but do not overwater); in winter, it’s to be kept dry. Preferable not to water on overcast days, humid days or cold winter days.
Hardiness: It is a quite frost resistant cactus, hardy to -5° C (- 10° C if very dry). However in cultivation it is better not to expose it to temperatures lower than -0° C, even if in an aerated and protected location, in order to avoid the formation of anti-aesthetic spots on the epidermis. In presence of high atmospheric humidity avoid any frost as it is particularly sensitive to root rot.
Exposure: Outside full sun or afternoon shade, inside needs bright light, and some direct sun, but, as a former mountain dweller, does not care for extremely high temperatures in summer.
Use: It is suitable for small “desert” gardens, in association with other xerophytes. Where the open air cultivation is not possible due to the climate, it is to be cultivated in pot in order to shelter it in winter.
Propagation: By seeds and by cuttings, provided left drying up well, in summer.
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